A forum for VE lucubration

Tuesday, June 20, 2006

Summary/Analysis of "Epistemic Luck" Chapters 1 and 2

(Note: What follows in this post is mostly my own summary of "Epistemic Luck" (Chs. 1 and 2), although I've added some critical analysis at some points; mostly, though, my attempt was to get clear on what the main claims were. I am open to suggestions as to whether I have some points misconstrued. --AC)

Chapter 1: Scepticism in Contemporary Debate

The task of this chapter seems to be twofold; first, to explain what will be a key term in Part two: the epistemic luck platitude (i.e. the pervasive supposition that knowledge excludes luck) and pose as a question (which will not be addressed until Part II) how it is that the epistemic luck platitude is a motivation for skepticism; secondly, Pritchard presents two separate motivations for skepticism that drive the contemporary debate, the infallibilism-based radical skeptical argument, and the closure-based radical skeptical argument.
His argument is that the closure-based argument is logically weaker, and because it is also capable of generating the radical skeptical conclusion generated by the infallibilsm-based argument, it is the most appropriate for the antiskeptic to address. A correlative point Pritchard makes is that, because the closure-based argument is what should be dealt with by the antiskeptic (and not the logically stronger infallibilism-based skeptical argument), we can conclude something important about the relationship between skepticism and epistemic luck, namely, that we are prevented from “identifying the skeptical challenge as simply arising out of an unduly demanding—indeed, an unqualified—reading of the claim that knowledge excludes luck. We would only do this if tackling the skeptic amounted merely to tackling the infallibilism-based argument. However, because the task is more difficult (i.e. to combat the closure-based argument), we can see that the skeptical challenge arises out of a “qualified” reading of the epistemic luck platitude. However, it does not follow from the fact that skepticism is motivated by a qualified reading of the epistemic luck platitude that that qualification requires adopting fallibilism. Closure provides an alternative to fallibilism, and among motivators for skepticism, appears to be the strongest contender.
Two principles are introduced in this chapter, which serve for the basis of the two arguments he presents that motivate skepticism.

(1) Infallibility Principle: For all agents, ϕ, if an agent knows a proposition ϕ, then that agent knows that all error-possibilities associated with ϕ are false.

(2) Closure Principle for Knowledge: For all agents, ϕ, ψ, if an agent knows that ϕ, and knows that ϕ entails ψ, then that agent knows that ψ.

Let’s see why closure is “logically weaker”: to do this we must identify that both principles can be used to generate the radical skeptical conclusion, and secondly, that between two arguments which generate the same conclusion, the logically weaker (i.e. closure) is the “stronger” argument to rebut. Here are the two arguments which are formed from these respective principles.

The infallibilism-based skeptical argument
1. If one is to have knowledge of a wide range of everyday propositions, then one must know the denials of all error-possibilities that are associated with these propositions, including radical skeptical hypothesis.
2. One cannot know the denials of radical skeptical hypotheses.
3. Therefore, one cannot have knowledge of a wide range of everyday propositions.

The closure-based radical skeptical argument
1. If one is to have knowledge of a wide range of everyday propositions, then one must know the denials of all radical skeptical hypotheses that one knows to be incompatible with the relevant everyday propositions.
2. One cannot know the denials of radical skeptical hypotheses.
3. Therefore, one cannot have knowledge of a wide ranger of everyday propositions.

∀x [(Ks(Ixt ) → EAxt]

(For all x, if x is incompatible with a target proposition and s knows this, then x is an error-possibility associated with that target proposition).

However,

~∀x [EAxt → Ks(Ixt)]

This is because not all error-possibilities associated with a proposition are known by the agent to be incompatible with that proposition. The entailment which takes place in the closure principle involves only those propositions that the agent knows are incompatible with the target proposition. And so, the set of those error-possibilities that must be ruled out according the infallibility principle could be, in principle, larger than the set that the agent knows to be incompatible with the target proposition, however, the inverse could not be the case. And hence, the closure-based argument requires that we rule out (in principle) less error-possibilities than the infallibility-based argument requires. Because the closure-based argument can reach the same conclusion (radical skepticism) as the infallibility-based argument, and with a smaller set of error-possibilities we must rule out, it is a more dangerous threat for the anti-skeptic.

Ch. 2: Closure and Context

By the beginning of Ch. 2, “Closure and Context”, Pritchard hopes to have already have taken us aboard in adopting a template closure-based skeptical argument over the logically stronger infallibility-based template skeptical argument; secondly, he hopes that, in making this move, we will come to reject the idea that the skeptical problem merely arises from a robust reading of the claim that knowledge excludes luck.
How can the skeptic, viz. motivating skepticism with the closure-based skeptical argument be rebutted? This purpose of Chapter two is to offer two attempts, which ultimately fail. These attempts are (1) to deny the closure principle, a move made most notably by Fred Dretske, and (2) to embrace the position of attributer contextualism. Pritchard shows how each of these two strategies attempts to counter the skeptic with the closure-based argument in mind; he argues, though, that each fails, and for a common reason. Both denying closure and embracing attributer contextualism are examples of externalist positions which are, as he says, “at certain key junctures, implicitly motivated by internalist epistemological intuitions. ” Ultimately, Pritchard’s goal here isn’t so much as to prop up two straw men, as to instructively show why particular responses can’t work in the face the closure-based motivation for skepticism, and only given such instruction, does it become as blatantly clear (as Pritchard seems to want it) why a third response, Neo-Mooreanism, is the most desirable strategy. Merely arguing for neo-Mooreanism would not have been so persuasive if it were not made obvious why other attempts run into dead ends.

Denying Closure: Dretske

Dretske proposes that we can know a given proposition Φ while at the same time lacking knowledge of the known entailment Ψ, because “the truth of Ψ is already presupposed in the agent’s knowledge of Φ.” What is significant here is that, when a knowledge operator is applied to Φ, it doesn’t “penetrate the (known) entailment Ψ because, qua being a presupposition of the agent’s knowing Φ, it is not part of what is being operated on when the knowledge operator is applied to the known proposition.

Pritchard captures the force of what Dretske’s up to here in saying that: “most knowledge quite legitimately presupposes the truth of certain propositions that one does not know. ” Denying closure allows us to preserve a motivation for fallibilism that was advanced by J.L. Austin’s “relevant alternatives” proposal: the proposal that to know an everyday proposition, one need only rule out error-possibilities that one has a reason to take into account. We must be careful, though, not to conflate the two. What is preserved of the this fallibist motivation by the closure-principle is the possibility that one can have knowledge of an everyday proposition without knowing the denial of skeptical hypotheses (which would be incompatible with knowledge of that proposition). It is in this sense that the closure principle can preserve a fallibilist motive. However, there is more to denying closure than merely rejecting the knowledge operator entailment. Dretske also advocates a sensitivity-based theory of knowledge, which is externalist (i.e. it rejects that facts needed to justify a proposition must be reflectively accessible), and which preserves his anti-closure position previously mentioned. The sensitivity principle Dretske advocates is as follows:

Sensitivity Principle: For all agents, Φ, if an agent knows a contingent proposition Φ, then the agent does not believe that Φ in the nearest possible world or worlds in which ~Φ.

Interestingly, accepting this principle (as Dretske does) as essentially the necessary and sufficient condition for knowing a proposition, leads us to the fallibilist-intuition-preserving-friendly result that we can know everyday propositions (which do meet the sensitivity condition) whilst not knowing the denial of skeptical hypotheses which we know to be entailed by the everyday propositions we know, because the denial of skeptical hypotheses will fail to meet the sensitivity condition. They will fail for the reason that, even if we believe the denial of a skeptical hypothesis and it is true, we would still believe it was true in the nearest possible world in which the denial was false (i.e. in worlds in which we really are BIVs).
One problem of denying closure Dretske-style is that there emerges an asymmetry between the relevant-alternatives motive for fallibilism, and Dretske’s position. The asymmetry can be presented as follows: on the relevant-alternatives view, we need not know the denials of skeptical error-possibilities because (given that they are presumed to be in such far-worlds) they are not relevant to our knowledge of everyday propositions. However, what is interesting is that in our discussion of the denials of skeptical hypotheses, the denial of the skeptical hypotheses is relevant to knowledge. And so, in principle, it seems that the core relevant-alternatives thesis would allow that we would need to know the denial of skeptical hypotheses in at least some contexts; however, because Dretske’s position would never allow us to know such a denial (given that knowledge of it fails to meet the sensitivity condition), we should, Pritchard claims, “be wary of any view which proclaims itself to be the true heir to the relevant alternatives tradition.” I suspect Pritchard means this both in the sense that the relevant alternatives tradition is problematic in that it is somewhat ambiguous (in that it has a double standard, arguably) and in the sense that Dretske’s view claims itself to be an heir to a position from which it appears to relevantly stray.
It seems, though, that Pritchard’s central problem with Dretske’s closure-denying-sensitivity approach lies not in its relation to the relevant-alternatives thesis from which it is a supposed heir, but rather, with a problem which involves an ambivalence in motivation. The problem is that: Dretske’s position endorses an externalist theory of knowledge. Given this, Dretske’s view must be committed to not requiring internalist justification as necessary for knowledge. Pritchard thinks, though, that internalist intuitions are just what Dretske his in mind when explaining how it is that we lack knowledge of the denials of skeptical hypotheses. The passage of Dretske’s which Pritchard quotes to support this claim is:

If you are tempted to say [that the agent does know (Q)…[, think for a moment about the reasons that you have, what evedence you can produce in favour of this claim. The evidence you had for thinking them zebras has been effectively neutralized, since it does not count toward their not being mules disguised. Have you checked with the zoo authorities? Did you examine? Did you examine the animals closely enough to detect such a fraud? (Dretske 1970: 1016)

Pritchard claims here that, if we substitute a radical skeptical hypothesis in for the local one in this passage, then Dretske would be claiming that what prevents an agent from knowing the denial of a skeptical hypothesis “is that she is unable to adduce good empirical evidence in favour of thinking that this position is true. Since there is, intuitively at least, a close connection between the evidence that one is able to explicitly adduce and the evidence that is reflectively available to one, it follows that a natural way of reading this passage is as saying that agents are unable to know the denials of skeptical hypotheses because they lack internalist justification for their beliefs in these propositions.” (53) Pritchard’s problem with this is that, if Dretske’s position, qua being externalist, denies the necessity of internalist justification for knowledge, then it is a problem that he motivates the denial of closure (which I take it is what he was up to in his passage regarding the local hypotheses) with what appears to be an explanation for a lack of knowledge resulting from a lack of internalist justification.
I’d like to comment on this problem briefly before moving on to the second anti-skeptical strategy, which is attributer contextualism. I think that Pritchard’s motivation-based criticism of Dretske’s position is intuitively right-on. Although some more reflection led me asking questions down this avenue:
Is his position properly externalist? If it is, then that doesn’t seem completely evident by the definition given of the sensitivity principle. Recall that the sensitivity principle is claiming that:

Sensitivity Principle: For all agents, Φ, if an agent knows a contingent proposition Φ, then the agent does not believe that Φ in the nearest possible world or worlds in which ~Φ.

The consequent is something that could hold independent of an agent’s reflective accessibility to it (i.e. one might have no idea whether something holds in nearest possible worlds), and so the consequent represents an externalist condition. Also, the sensitivity principle presents the externalist condition as a necessary condition. Epistemological internalism with regard to knowledge has, itself, one necessary condition: i.e. that the belief must be internally justified (i.e. all facts needed to justify the proposition must be reflectively accessible). I’m probably going wrong somewhere here, but it seems to me that: a position can require that all facts needed to justify a proposition must be reflectively accessible (i.e. internalist with regard to knowledge) and stipulate that, for a proposition to be known, not only must this internalist justificatory condition be met, but also, an externalist (non-justifying) condition must be met (i.e. the consequent in the sensitivity principle). Notice that the consequent in the sensitivity principle need not be understood as a justificatory condition (maybe I’m wrong here). And so it seems as though an externalist with regard to knowledge, in so far as she stipulates an externalist condition for knowing (i.e. as Dretske has done in his consequent of the sensitivity principle), and still require internalist justification for a belief. (For how is requiring internalist justification for knowledge incompatible with requiring an externalist condition for knowing?)
I think there are two points that are at the source of what is probably just confusion on my part. First off, my point hangs on whether the consequent of the sensitivity principle is to be read as a justificatory condition. Secondly, I don’t think I am fully clear as to the extent to which the sensitivity principle is externalist by virtue of its requiring an externalist condition for knowing. If Dretske’s position is externalist for this reason (i.e. that it requires an externalist condition for knowing), then I’m not clear as to why this externalist-making feature of the sensitivity principle would require a rejection of internalism with regard to knowledge (which is what Dretske’s position must do if it is properly externalist).
The next anti-skeptic alternative presented is attributer contextualism, a position that combats skepticism with the added benefit of remaining true to the intuitive closure principle. Attributer contextualism amounts to the position that, for a given proposition, its truth value will be in part determined by the conversational context of the proposition circumscribed by the attributer of that proposition. This is the position advanced most notably by DeRose (2005), Lewis (1996) and Cohen (2000). A consequence of attributer contextualism is that a given proposition, “S knows that p” can be uttered in one circumstance and be true, and in another circumstance and be false. Obviously, a motivation for adopting such a view would be to preserve that we can have quite a bit of the knowledge we think we have. Why? Because, given that (we grant that) skeptical hypotheses (and the task of ruling them out) are not relevant to most everyday circumstances in which we think we have knowledge, it is not necessary to rule them out in order to say that we know (for example) that it is raining today. Ruling out the denials of skeptical hypotheses is relevant only in the context of decisively skeptical conversations. Attributer contextualism seems on the surface to be capable of preserving two generally incompatible intuitions: (1) The infallibilist intuition that skeptical conversational contexts lead us to discover that we lack knowledge of the denial of them, and a fortiori, we lack most of the knowledge we have; (2) In everyday contexts, we “know” a great deal (p. 55) of what we think we know.
An instinctive reaction would be to think that, surely, these apparently contradictory claims cannot be reconciled without denying closure, and so how can attributer contextualism preserve closure (whilst in any sense remaining true to these antithetical intuitions?) The solution for attributer contextualism is to claim that closure is preserved only within the same conversational context. And so, John’s knowing that the bottle is on the table whilst not knowing that he is not a BIV doesn’t deny closure because his lack of knowledge of the latter is appropriate only within a skeptical conversational context in which he wouldn’t have even known the bottle was on the table.
Pritchard gives two objections to attributer contextualism. The first is somewhat comical; he says, “The most obvious difficulty with attributer contextualism is its commitment to the counter-intuitive thesis that ‘knowledge’ is a context-sensitive term sin the manner described, with the epistemic standards relevant to whether or not knowledge can be truly ascribed to an agent being determined by conversational factors” (58). This is another way of saying, “One problem for attributer contextualism is that its thesis amounts to a reductio against it.” And, indeed, it seems that way. If we grant the platitude that knowledge entails truth, and also grant (as A.C. wishes to) that knowledge is context sensitive, then truth is context sensitive; further, if truth is understood (loosely) as having something to do with how things are, then how things are would be relative to presuppositions that are held within discourse. How odd that would be.
The other problem that is presented is in tune with the second problem presented to Dretske’s anti-skeptical strategy of denying closure: and the shared problem here is a problem with motivation—specifically, the problem of offering externalist positions which are motivated in part by internalist commitments. The way the argument goes (contra attributer contextualism) here seems to be this: A.C. commits itself to the claim that we can know the denial of skeptical hypothesis. This commitment arises once closure is preserved within everyday contexts in which we claim knowledge of any everyday proposition. However, it has been argued that no internalist account can account for knowledge of the denials of skeptical hypothesis (given that no internalist justification is available to support such a claim). Resorting to the available externalist option, though, will lead one to wonder why it is necessary to import all of the “sophisticated theoretical machinery” (60) of contextualism. “Why not just simply argue that agents know everyday propositions and thus, given closure, that agents can know the denials of skeptical hypotheses also” (60). The point the author appears to be making is that: once the denials of skeptical hypotheses are claimed to be “known”, then the skeptical problem seems to disappear in such a way that one ought not resort to the apparently counterintuitive contextualist assumptions in order to explain it. (My aside: ironically, it was importing just this machinery that got us to the position of having externalist knowledge of the denials of skeptical hypotheses, knowledge of which would render the machinery cumbersome). And, on another note, the externalist knowledge of denials of skeptical hypotheses which are closurelly-entailed by everyday knowledge in normal contexts, is not obviously explained. Says Pritchard: “Of course, a great deal needs to be said to explain how one could know the denials of skeptical hypotheses even on an externalist theory of knowledge” (60). A.C. doesn’t have a very clear answer to this, even though it is committed to it.
The moral of the story seems to be this: we’ve looked at two anti-skeptical strategies, and independent of other problems of these respective strategies, each is inconsistently motivated. On this note, the dialectical transition will be to investigate a third anti-skeptical strategy that is not inconsistently motivated: neo-Mooreanism. Unfortunately, though, we’ll see that whilst neo-Mooreanism looks quite good compared to the Dretskean and attributer contextualist anti-skeptical strategies, there is another problem on the table, which has to do with any externalist response to the skeptical dilemma which does not recognize that the tenor of the skeptical strategy is essentially internalist.

27 Comments:

Anonymous Anonymous said...

Your are Nice. And so is your site! Maybe you need some more pictures. Will return in the near future.
»

2:17 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I find some information here.

4:21 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello everyone!
I would like to burn a theme at this forum. There is such a nicey, called HYIP, or High Yield Investment Program. It reminds of financial piramyde, but in rare cases one may happen to meet a company that really pays up to 2% daily not on invested money, but from real profits.

For quite a long time, I earn money with the help of these programs.
I don't have problems with money now, but there are heights that must be conquered . I get now up to 2G a day , and I started with funny 500 bucks.
Right now, I managed to catch a guaranteed variant to make a sharp rise . Turn to my blog to get additional info.

http://theinvestblog.com [url=http://theinvestblog.com]Online Investment Blog[/url]

7:14 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

whoah this blog is fantastic i really like reading your posts.
Keep up the good work! You understand, lots of people are looking round for this
info, you could help them greatly.

Review my web page ... radio sender

9:48 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Tennis balls, wiffle balls, ping pong balls, and golf balls
can also be used. Each program will have a box with a checkmark,
find the programs you'd like to uninstall and uncheck that box. Each child is given 30 seconds to race to the pile and make as many matches as possible before time runs out.

Look at my homepage ... youtube downloader online

11:21 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

5. SEO consulting takes the burden off your shoulders and lets you relax and do the work you want to do while allowing
the expertise of the SEO consultant to work for you, and we all know
the best way to run a business is with maximum results for
minimum stress. It would be optimum thought to select the local SEO service after checking the rank of their website.
This can be a great tool when selling products online, as a website can
be designed to offer either luxury or bargain-oriented
goods, based on traffic analysis. Is professional search engine
marketing the thing that you need. It would cut
the marketing project to fit it into your budget. Domain Authority is influenced by:.
This is because there is a stiff competition in this
particular field and the market is flooded with lots of
firms that provide proficient SEO experts India services at the economical costs.
Isn't that something you and your business should be a part of. ) of links. Arrange the H1, H2 and H3 tags serially with proper hierarchy. If the comments are created for solely promotional purposes, they will probably get deleted. Basically, if you create links to your website with "ink cartridges" or "printer cartridges" in the anchor text, it will help move your website up on the search results for those key words. No - you name some of your images "breast. For this reason, having mentions from these sites have increasingly become a more valuable asset for your internet marketing. Originally posted at: digitalmoz. In fact, soon, not using RDFa could put a site at a disadvantage. Once someone clicks on your site, they should see tons of unique informative content. Such companies know the best about industry and market trends. Never post a half edited article, and never settle for less than your best.

My web page :: ratesinmotion.com

7:58 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Theѕe are also availаble with PTO Delay featurе ωhich automaticallу open tank
internal ѵalvе for 5 seconds prior to engaging
PTO allowing pump and proԁuct lines to charge previewing intervаl valve ѕlug.
The broadcasting ρrocess is not сomplicatеd as аll the equipments esѕential aге еasily аvailable but with new ideas coming up еvеry daу,
new requirеments rise with new crіteгia of
transmiѕѕion lіκe Dab Digіtal Radio anԁ DRM.
The Publіc Raԁio Tuner frοm American Ρublic Mеdia may bе one οf the beѕt radio apρlications you cаn get.


Stop by my website :: Highly recommended Internet page

7:15 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

The most important thing to know when you are selling an account
is where you are going to sell. Real game, real people, real
thrill and of course real money; is all about online gaming, the perfect place to fulfill your desire to be
a multi millionaire. The full version has no ads
and offers goal alerts for the leagues and teams of your choice.



Look at my webpage; online radio

2:49 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Tennis balls, wiffle balls, ping pong balls, and golf balls can also be used.
Each program will have a box with a checkmark, find the programs you'd like to uninstall and uncheck that box. The player guides Phen through 10 levels of dungeon gameplay, finding a whole host of weapons and other items as well.

My web-site; youtube converter
My site > radio sender

7:39 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Sizzling hot Book of Ra spielen has a huge exciting and qualifications tale, because there
is about the exciting activities in the old Egyptian.
Staffel 3 beginnt die Saison in der Regel auf die Owen Sound Attack.
He then becomes more superstitious and does not realize that it was
his subconscious that made him lose the game.

My website; http://Www.Talkingnewspaper.org/story.php?title=kostenlos-online-spielespielen

8:26 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Each listing includes the skills taught and the suggested age for the activity.
Thus the games like the Mahjongg Spiele as well as the Naegel machen games are more in demand and this is the
greatest benefit or advantage of the online games.
You'll have to keep the phone close (on the bed or in an armband) for the app to work.

Also visit my web blog ... onlineradio

3:01 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

While it is one thing to have a social media profile
on an online community like Deviant - ART, it is a whole other thing entirely to have fitted it with an effective SEO strategy.
The objective is to arrange your passions as carefully
as possible with your online promotion company.
You can then take a hard look at the companies that come up for that particular keyword.

This can be a great tool when selling products online, as a website can be
designed to offer either luxury or bargain-oriented goods, based on traffic analysis.
It's so important because once customers begin seeking your product or service you will want to have favorable words making your search results optimized. The major preference is for offshore SEO companies as they offer SEO at the most competitive prices. Some SEO firms focus on content spinning and submitting articles. There are many tools online to help you research relevant keywords, such as the Google Adwords Keyword Tool. Its professionals would do hard work to achieve the high traffic objective and they might taste success in their attempt but they would desist from boasting anything about their success. This helps auto dealership websites rank higher in the search engines results and get more traffic to the website. Use SEM experts to recognize duplicate content as part of your website, and act immediately to have it settled. If the comments are created for solely promotional purposes, they will probably get deleted. Their success is based on how many sales and customers you bring. You can find several internet marketing companies across the world. Know how to get better rank. Why. Today, it is necessary that you scout the market for the best SEO Host that can help you achieve this. A person can find all sorts of products available at various prices on the internet. The content must complement the theme of the website design. Never post a half edited article, and never settle for less than your best.

Feel free to visit my web page; http://articleaudit.com

8:09 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Be intellectual еnοugh to ѕee that уouг ad
does not go on air оn a unѕeemly show ; a Christian
book going on air on a show that is about handling ѕexual issueѕ would be ridiculous.
Yet аnоthег way to сonstruct а devicе
to hаrness еneгgу from radіo wаves is
using an аntenna, connеcted to a serieѕ of ԁiodes and a сapacіtor bank that iѕ еarthed.
Proffering multifarious bеnefits tο the advertisеrs, it is
a quintessential resoгt for companies big οr small.


My page ... internetradio

6:53 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

"Is there really no way to transfer my VC and Wii - Ware games from my Wii to another. One way to test yourself is to deal yourself hand after hand in front of a mirror and watch yourself as you react to the cards. You'll have to keep the phone close (on the bed or in an armband) for the app to work.

Feel free to visit my website spiele spielen
My web site - internet radio

12:03 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Over time, many of these radio personnel will be readily agreeable
to featuring the entrepreneur whenever they
release new products or services. In my case I listen
to all music that is submitted to me before I include it
on my playlist. Some radio stations have also started making use of streaming MP3
format, which could be played through Winamp.

Also visit my blog internet radio

9:45 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Along with these two ingredients, comes swallowing your ego and be willing to do work for free at first.
From here a company can use this data to accurately determine how many employees they will need to have on hand to meet the required level
of production. Instead, managers should manage more and supervise less.


Also visit my web blog ... astoria new york

10:30 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

For instance, when you visit a news site, your Facebook profile pic often
shows up in the comment section on articles so you can comment
with your Facebook account. Update your fan page with relevant and
interesting content. Link ' Recommend sites to other users and vice versa.

Feel free to surf to my website :: mouse click the next site

3:52 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

There are numerous movies avialable on these websites and the search of a
particular movie can be done directly through the search bar or
going by the categories or genres. Here's another lightweight throwaway flick based on a true story, but held down by as few underpinnings as possible, despite a fantastic all-star cast and one of my favorite directors of all time (Stephen Frears, whose body of work includes Dangerous Liaisons, High Fidelity, and The Queen). As the holiday countdown dwindles and your calendar continues to fill up with holiday parties, you might be in the mood to throw a small soiree of your own.

Also visit my web-site: free email newsletter

2:53 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a really well written article.

I will make sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful
info. Thanks for the post. I will definitely return.


Also visit my homepage :: book of ra tricks

1:35 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi there! Quick question that's entirely off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My weblog looks weird when viewing from my iphone4. I'm trying to find a theme
or plugin that might be able to resolve this problem. If you
have any suggestions, please share. Many thanks!


My homepage :: invest.ecoinformatics.org

10:52 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I believe what you published was actually very logical.
But, what about this? what if you wrote a catchier title?
I ain't saying your information is not good, however what if you added a post title that makes people want more? I mean "Summary/Analysis of "Epistemic Luck" Chapters 1 and 2" is kinda boring. You ought to look at Yahoo's
home page and note how they create article titles to grab viewers to click.
You might add a related video or a pic or two
to get people excited about everything've written. Just my opinion, it could make your posts a little bit more interesting.

My webpage - http://demo.phpfoxthai.com

8:54 PM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

It's an remarkable piece of writing in support of all the online people; they will get advantage from it I am sure.

Feel free to surf to my page book of ra online spielen ohne anmeldung kostenlos

4:04 AM

 
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anyplace, when i read
this post i thought i could also make comment due to this sensible article.


Feel free to surf to my web site columbus novoline online spielen ()

8:27 PM

 
Blogger oakleyses said...

jordan shoes, christian louboutin, uggs outlet, michael kors outlet online, uggs on sale, louis vuitton outlet, louis vuitton outlet, louis vuitton, ray ban sunglasses, replica watches, christian louboutin uk, chanel handbags, michael kors outlet online, uggs outlet, longchamp outlet, nike air max, michael kors outlet, burberry handbags, tiffany and co, polo outlet, nike free, nike air max, ugg boots, oakley sunglasses, ray ban sunglasses, michael kors outlet online, oakley sunglasses, christian louboutin outlet, longchamp outlet, prada handbags, gucci handbags, prada outlet, oakley sunglasses wholesale, michael kors outlet, oakley sunglasses, kate spade outlet, christian louboutin shoes, louis vuitton outlet, tory burch outlet, ugg boots, michael kors outlet online, burberry outlet, cheap oakley sunglasses, louis vuitton, ray ban sunglasses, nike outlet, longchamp outlet

6:52 AM

 
Blogger oakleyses said...

sac vanessa bruno, new balance, vans pas cher, ray ban uk, nike blazer pas cher, true religion outlet, michael kors outlet, true religion outlet, replica handbags, polo lacoste, oakley pas cher, coach purses, hollister uk, abercrombie and fitch uk, nike free uk, north face uk, louboutin pas cher, polo ralph lauren, hollister pas cher, nike air max uk, michael kors pas cher, nike air max, true religion jeans, timberland pas cher, nike air max uk, coach outlet, air max, michael kors, jordan pas cher, sac hermes, north face, lululemon canada, coach outlet store online, nike roshe, sac longchamp pas cher, nike air force, mulberry uk, hogan outlet, ralph lauren uk, longchamp pas cher, michael kors, converse pas cher, burberry pas cher, nike roshe run uk, true religion outlet, kate spade, nike free run, nike tn, ray ban pas cher, guess pas cher

6:55 AM

 
Blogger oakleyses said...

asics running shoes, babyliss, soccer jerseys, hermes belt, reebok outlet, ipad cases, oakley, iphone cases, soccer shoes, iphone 5s cases, nfl jerseys, north face outlet, abercrombie and fitch, ghd hair, vans outlet, iphone 6 cases, hollister, nike roshe run, wedding dresses, mac cosmetics, lululemon, new balance shoes, jimmy choo outlet, instyler, giuseppe zanotti outlet, p90x workout, s6 case, chi flat iron, iphone 6s cases, longchamp uk, baseball bats, mcm handbags, iphone 6 plus cases, bottega veneta, ferragamo shoes, timberland boots, mont blanc pens, insanity workout, nike air max, nike trainers uk, herve leger, nike huaraches, celine handbags, north face outlet, beats by dre, iphone 6s plus cases, valentino shoes, ralph lauren, hollister clothing, louboutin

6:58 AM

 
Blogger oakleyses said...

moncler uk, louis vuitton, thomas sabo, wedding dresses, barbour, moncler, gucci, montre pas cher, supra shoes, hollister, barbour uk, nike air max, karen millen uk, pandora uk, moncler, canada goose uk, coach outlet, ugg, juicy couture outlet, swarovski, canada goose, louis vuitton, moncler outlet, louis vuitton, hollister, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, canada goose outlet, replica watches, pandora jewelry, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, moncler, canada goose outlet, ugg pas cher, louis vuitton, juicy couture outlet, swarovski crystal, louis vuitton, canada goose, pandora charms, canada goose outlet, links of london, marc jacobs, lancel, converse, converse outlet, toms shoes, doudoune moncler, moncler, pandora jewelry, canada goose jackets, vans, canada goose

7:03 AM

 

Post a Comment

Subscribe to Post Comments [Atom]

<< Home